My technique for calculating the standard cleat position Started back when I was developing the Shoe / Pedal system for Project '96. Some of the guys showed me how they would calculate the cleat position.
With the shoe on, they would feel for the center 1st metatarsal and place a mark on the side of the shoe near the sole. Then they would do the same for the 5th metatarsal and again mark the shoe.
Then the marks would get transferred to the bottom of the sole. A diagonal line was drawn connecting the marks. Next, a centerline was drawn.
Where those 2 lines bisected a perpendicular line was drawn towards the inside edge of the shoe. That is where the center of the spindle was placed.
Since I made orthotics for every customer, I hade a foot impression available that I would fill with plaster to make the orthotics. I would plot all of those measurements out on the plaster model of the foot. Then transfer that mark to the orthotics and then the shoe sole. A bit easier...
Finally after doing thousands of these calculations, a pattern emerged. The cleat placement almost always came out at 95% of the Heel to the center of 1st met head measurement. The only change would occur if the 5th met head was unusually far back. That is irrelevant to the power part of the foot which is more towards the medial aspect of the foot.
To this day this is the formula that I use. It is extremely accurate.
So unless you have a specific placement in mind, like mid-foot, or other, this is where your cleats will go.